Practical teaching methods help to realize the organic combination of course teaching and practical application, and facilitate the real penetration of the teaching process by enterprises and other institutions, rather than the "walking through the scene" of the previous school-enterprise combination.
——Fang Yong, Dean of the School of Food Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Finance and Economics
◎Our reporter Ma Aiping and correspondent Zhou Jinjin
At present, the innovation, breakthrough and development of science and technology rely more and more on the intersection and integration of multiple disciplines, which puts forward higher requirements for the cultivation of compound talents.
In this context, at the beginning of this year, the official website of the Ministry of Education announced the "Notice of the Ministry of Education on the Establishment of "Interdisciplinary" Categories, "Integrated Circuit Science and Engineering" and "National Security" on the official website of the State Council Academic Degrees Committee. Interdisciplinary subjects were "independent" and became the 14th subject category in my country.
"In view of the current situation of insufficient connection between university talent training and industrial demand under the new normal of economic development, upgrading and transforming traditional professional courses, and cultivating scarce talents who adapt to future social development trends, has become a key issue in the current higher education field that needs to be resolved." Nanjing University of Finance and Economics President Cheng Yongbo said in an interview with a reporter from Science and Technology Daily that talents are the first resource and the supporting force for scientific and technological innovation. The establishment of interdisciplinary categories is an important measure to solve the current social development's demand for compound talents.
After the interdisciplinary "independence", what kind of talent training model should be adopted? What kind of literacy should interdisciplinary teachers have to deal with the new talent training needs?
Industry-university-research collaboration to cultivate new talents
Since the end of the 20th century, the teaching practice and talent training concepts based on interdisciplinary integration in Chinese universities have been continuously strengthened. Especially in recent years, domestic application-oriented universities have begun to focus on the integration of the economic and social development characteristics of the region, and emphasize the construction of interdisciplinary integration of internal and external environments, so as to promote interdisciplinary development and strengthen the reform of the talent training system.
However, the previous depth of interdisciplinary integration cannot meet the development needs of interdisciplinary development as independent disciplines. Ding Chao, associate professor of the School of Food Science and Engineering at Nanjing University of Finance and Economics, believes that new interdisciplinary subjects are in the initial stage of development and improvement in terms of professional curriculum system, practical teaching methods, and talent training models, and there are still many shortcomings. Therefore, based on the construction of interdisciplinary subjects, we should focus on the cultivation of students' innovative thinking and practical ability, deepen the reform of the curriculum system, teaching content, teaching methods and practical means, and explore diversified new talent training models.
Ding Chao believes that the establishment of interdisciplinary subjects is based on the actual needs of social development. It lays out industries for national and local strategies and cultivates interdisciplinary talents with practical capabilities. Therefore, the new mode of interdisciplinary talent training should be based on the integration of industry, university and research, and coordinate with all parties to organize an agreement to clarify the work responsibilities, scope of responsibilities and testing standards for the effectiveness of talent training; scientifically design institutional norms for responsibilities, powers, and interests; Build a joint training base for production, education and research, and form a new mode of collaborative training through internships and project support.
"In addition to establishing a new interdisciplinary talent collaborative training model based on school-enterprise cooperation, the curriculum system can also be reformed to meet the needs of new interdisciplinary talent teaching; research teaching models can be introduced to cultivate students' innovative thinking ability, etc." Ding Chao said.
Strengthen practice and create a new teaching model
"From the perspective of undergraduate level, my country's new interdisciplinary talents still have problems such as insufficient innovation ability, lack of practical experience, and insufficient mastery of cutting-edge advanced knowledge and technology. After leaving the campus, their practical ability cannot meet the needs of the current society." Nanjing Fang Yong, Dean of the School of Food Science and Engineering at the University of Finance and Economics believes.
The demand-oriented cross-discipline has raised the requirements of students' practical ability to a new height.
In this regard, Ding Chao believes that universities can reconstruct the practical teaching system and create a new practical teaching model. "For example, relying on the practice base, on the basis of on-campus experiments and off-campus training, we can further combine innovation projects, innovation competitions and practical training. Enterprise mentors will integrate actual industrial issues into the classroom, and school-enterprise mentors will jointly design innovations. Training topics, guide students to complete the topic opening process by means of on-campus training; you can also support students to complete the design and development of the topic by applying for college student innovation training projects, on-campus scientific research projects, etc.; for those who design works with application prospects and potential for transformation To further support their participation in the'Challenge Cup' Internet+' and other related events, to promote learning through competitions, and to strengthen students' engineering and innovation abilities through short-term high-intensity preparations." Ding Chao suggested.
In specific practice, Ding Chao introduced that the School of Food Science and Engineering of Nanjing University of Finance and Economics has developed grain, oil and food processing, logistics, warehousing, quality inspection and other engineering application experiments based on grain project case teaching; using information technology to cooperate in research and development of openness Intelligent experimental platform, including grain cleaning and drying, circulation fumigation, grain cooling, nitrogen-filled storage, rice processing, wheat flour processing, smart logistics, food 3D printing design, etc., combined with the college’s innovation and entrepreneurship laboratory to carry out 4 levels of practical teaching , To consolidate the cultivation of students' innovation and practical ability.
"Practical teaching methods help to achieve the organic combination of curriculum teaching and practical applications, and facilitate the real penetration of the teaching process by enterprises and other institutions, rather than the previous school-enterprise combination of'walking through the scene'." Fang Yong said, "Practical The teaching link can not only test students' theoretical knowledge, practical ability and research level, but also improve their ability to analyze and solve problems."
He suggested that all regions should strengthen the practical teaching of new interdisciplinary talents, reform the practical teaching design and evaluation mechanism, formulate a more complete evaluation system, examine the practical ability of students, and design reasonable teaching content, schedule and tasks for practical courses. Division of labor; in addition, it is necessary to establish a scientific assessment system and diversified examination methods, including essays, topic discussions, homework defenses, making special multimedia courseware, designing small experiments, practical summaries, etc., to scientifically examine students’ practice from a multi-dimensional perspective ability.
Exploring the interdisciplinary double employment system to enhance teachers' enthusiasm
The core of interdisciplinary talent training lies in teacher resources. How does the traditional single subject-oriented teacher training model respond to the demand for compound talent training under the new situation?
"Teachers of different disciplines and different majors have their own strengths. The cultivation of interdisciplinary talents requires the integration of teachers of different disciplines and majors. A flexible personnel system can be set up to build a school-enterprise teacher flow mechanism. It can also be selected and hired with certain skills. Profession associations, corporate technical backbones, and management personnel who have the ability to teach or have the experience of guiding students in graduation design (more than two sessions) come to universities to jointly teach.” Fang Yong believes that from the current allocation of teacher resources, a large number of traditional single-subject teachers Transition and rapid mastery of multi-disciplinary teaching ability is unrealistic. The most scientific method is to integrate existing teaching resources and establish a "composite" teacher team. It is even possible to abandon the original teacher teaching structure, abandon the fixed tutor system, start from the actual teaching, and allocate corresponding teacher resources in different teaching stages.
In this regard, Fang Yong suggested to build an interdisciplinary team of teachers that can enter and exit, open and flow, build an interdisciplinary teacher resource flow mechanism, explore an interdisciplinary double-employment mechanism for the teaching team, and standardize the professional title evaluation system for the interdisciplinary teacher team. And the channel for talents to rise, build an institutional culture that is conducive to the growth of interdisciplinary scholars.
Related experts pointed out that the joint appointment of teachers is an important starting point to promote interdisciplinary and cross-field collaborative innovation, to promote the production of major achievements and the formation of an innovation ecosystem. At present, my country urgently needs to remove the institutional barriers to the joint recruitment of interdisciplinary teachers, mobilize the enthusiasm of the joint recruitment of colleges, departments and teachers, and promote the interdisciplinary integration and continuous improvement of discipline competitiveness.
In response to the high demand for practicality of interdisciplinary subjects, Fang Yong pointed out that it is possible to encourage the dispatch of some key teachers to the company for temporary training, go deep into the industry, and earnestly grasp the key technical issues of the company; encourage teachers to undertake the research and development work of the company's horizontal topics, and transform the scientific research results It is a practical engineering case to promote teachers' in-depth understanding and familiarity with the frontiers of science and technology and engineering practice applications, and cultivate students' innovation and practical ability.
"It is necessary to break the class time limit and the'five-wei' evaluation mechanism, focus on evaluating its participation in student guidance and performance, and evaluate the developmental indicators of students' scientific research results, innovative practices, scientific and technological achievements, industrial contribution, and social impact. Further improve the teacher classification assessment and incentive system, and establish a scientific and reasonable evaluation system." Fang Yong believes.