[Global Times reporter Ni Hao] According to the latest data released by the National Health Commission on the afternoon of the 24th, as of May 23, a total of 51.858 million doses of new crown virus vaccine have been reported across the country. After a new round of local epidemics in Anhui and Liaoning, China's vaccination has accelerated significantly. In the eight days before May 19, China has achieved a total of 100 million doses of vaccination. After that, the daily vaccination rate was more than 10 million doses, and the cumulative vaccination rate exceeded 500 million doses.
"Global Times" reporter calculated according to public data, on March 27, the cumulative number of new crown vaccination in the country exceeded 100 million doses, and it took 25 days to exceed 200 million on April 21. It took 16 days from 200 million doses to more than 300 million doses on May 7th, 9 days to break 400 million doses on May 16 and 500 million doses on the 23rd. 7 days. It can be seen from the data that China's vaccination has been accelerating time and time again.
At present, there is no official release of the vaccination schedule. However, on March 1 this year, Zhong Nanshan, the leader of the high-level expert group of the National Health Commission, said that in June this year, China's new crown vaccination rate is planned to reach 40%. On March 22, Gao Fu, director of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, said in an interview that he hopes that by the beginning of 2022, or even the end of this year, China will reach 70%-80% of the new crown vaccination rate (that is, about 900 million to 1 billion). The population has been vaccinated), basically achieving herd immunity. The information disclosed by Zhong Nanshan and Gao Fu was understood by foreign media as the timetable for China's new crown vaccine.
According to the data monitored by Oxford University's "Our World in Data" (Our World in Data), the United States has completed 284 million doses of new crown vaccination, and the vaccination rate has reached 39.3%. China ranks first in the world in terms of cumulative vaccination volume, but it is inferior to a few countries such as the United States, Israel, Chile, and the United Arab Emirates in terms of vaccination rate.
One month ago, on April 15th, Wu Zunyou, chief epidemiologist of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, said at a forum, “Due to the large population base in my country, to achieve herd immunity through vaccination, the number of people who need to be vaccinated reaches 1 billion. It is a challenge. It’s huge.” Zhong Nanshan said at the 20th Asian Science Council Conference held in Guangzhou on May 13, “my country’s rate of vaccination is low, and we must keep up with the situation. Like other countries in the world, we will strive to reach 70%-80% as soon as possible. % Vaccination rate."
Feng Duojia, president of the China Vaccine Industry Association, said in an interview with the Global Times reporter on May 24 that the core issue that determines whether China's vaccination can be achieved on schedule is the production and supply of vaccines. Feng Duojia said that the total output of China's new crown vaccine is constantly increasing. Currently, more than 800 million doses have been produced, and it may exceed 3 billion doses by the end of this year. However, Feng Duojia believes that “the amount supplied to the country is not that much, but it is more than half, it is about 2 billion doses, but this is to be produced by the end of the year. In addition, the vaccination still needs time. 100 million people may achieve vaccination coverage, but not necessarily everyone has completed the full course of immunization (two to three shots), and it may be completed in the first half of next year."
However, Jiang Qing, an epidemiologist and professor at the School of Public Health of Fudan University, said in an interview with the Global Times reporter on the 24th that at the current rate, by the end of the year or early next year, China has a working foundation and the ability to complete the establishment of herd immunity. Goals are not a problem. Jiang Qingwu believes that China must try its best to complete this vaccination target by the end of the year, because the new crown virus will enter the next epidemic period in autumn and winter, so it must strive to complete the establishment of the population's immune barrier in December. Jiang Qingwu believes that China's vaccine production capacity will not become a constraining factor, but the key lies in national deployment. Regarding vaccination, Jiang Qingwu also believes that "China's vaccination rate has already risen. As long as the current rate is maintained, there is no problem in achieving the target as scheduled."
Practical teaching methods help to realize the organic combination of course teaching and practical application, and facilitate the real penetration of the teaching process by enterprises and other institutions, rather than the "walking through the scene" of the previous school-enterprise combination.
——Fang Yong, Dean of the School of Food Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Finance and Economics
◎Our reporter Ma Aiping and correspondent Zhou Jinjin
At present, the innovation, breakthrough and development of science and technology rely more and more on the intersection and integration of multiple disciplines, which puts forward higher requirements for the cultivation of compound talents.
In this context, at the beginning of this year, the official website of the Ministry of Education announced the "Notice of the Ministry of Education on the Establishment of "Interdisciplinary" Categories, "Integrated Circuit Science and Engineering" and "National Security" on the official website of the State Council Academic Degrees Committee. Interdisciplinary subjects were "independent" and became the 14th subject category in my country.
"In view of the current situation of insufficient connection between university talent training and industrial demand under the new normal of economic development, upgrading and transforming traditional professional courses, and cultivating scarce talents who adapt to future social development trends, has become a key issue in the current higher education field that needs to be resolved." Nanjing University of Finance and Economics President Cheng Yongbo said in an interview with a reporter from Science and Technology Daily that talents are the first resource and the supporting force for scientific and technological innovation. The establishment of interdisciplinary categories is an important measure to solve the current social development's demand for compound talents.
After the interdisciplinary "independence", what kind of talent training model should be adopted? What kind of literacy should interdisciplinary teachers have to deal with the new talent training needs?
Industry-university-research collaboration to cultivate new talents
Since the end of the 20th century, the teaching practice and talent training concepts based on interdisciplinary integration in Chinese universities have been continuously strengthened. Especially in recent years, domestic application-oriented universities have begun to focus on the integration of the economic and social development characteristics of the region, and emphasize the construction of interdisciplinary integration of internal and external environments, so as to promote interdisciplinary development and strengthen the reform of the talent training system.
However, the previous depth of interdisciplinary integration cannot meet the development needs of interdisciplinary development as independent disciplines. Ding Chao, associate professor of the School of Food Science and Engineering at Nanjing University of Finance and Economics, believes that new interdisciplinary subjects are in the initial stage of development and improvement in terms of professional curriculum system, practical teaching methods, and talent training models, and there are still many shortcomings. Therefore, based on the construction of interdisciplinary subjects, we should focus on the cultivation of students' innovative thinking and practical ability, deepen the reform of the curriculum system, teaching content, teaching methods and practical means, and explore diversified new talent training models.
Ding Chao believes that the establishment of interdisciplinary subjects is based on the actual needs of social development. It lays out industries for national and local strategies and cultivates interdisciplinary talents with practical capabilities. Therefore, the new mode of interdisciplinary talent training should be based on the integration of industry, university and research, and coordinate with all parties to organize an agreement to clarify the work responsibilities, scope of responsibilities and testing standards for the effectiveness of talent training; scientifically design institutional norms for responsibilities, powers, and interests; Build a joint training base for production, education and research, and form a new mode of collaborative training through internships and project support.
"In addition to establishing a new interdisciplinary talent collaborative training model based on school-enterprise cooperation, the curriculum system can also be reformed to meet the needs of new interdisciplinary talent teaching; research teaching models can be introduced to cultivate students' innovative thinking ability, etc." Ding Chao said.
Strengthen practice and create a new teaching model
"From the perspective of undergraduate level, my country's new interdisciplinary talents still have problems such as insufficient inn
A few days ago, the National Development and Reform Commission and other four departments have launched a list of 19 cost reductions to clarify the task book for entity companies to reduce costs this year. "Economic Information Daily" reporter learned that at present, from central ministries and commissions to local governments, tax and fee cuts and a package of cost reduction measures for small and micro enterprises and manufacturing companies are being implemented in full swing, and policy dividends are speeding up to reach market players. In the near future, there will be a series of policies to reduce the burden of real enterprises, including the full monthly refund of incremental value-added tax credits for advanced manufacturing enterprises, and more dividends can be expected.
The reporter learned that according to the timetable, a series of cost reduction policies will be implemented in the first half of the year, including full monthly refund of incremental value-added tax credits for advanced manufacturing enterprises; guiding banks to expand credit loans and continue to increase first loans The promotion of loan repayment on demand, so that more funds flow to technological innovation, green development, more to small and micro enterprises, individual industrial and commercial households, new agricultural business entities, and targeted support to industries and enterprises that continue to be affected by the epidemic.
Industry insiders believe that the current implementation of policies is the key, and it is necessary to continuously improve in the process of advancing to ensure that the effects of the policies are in place. At the same time, it is necessary to improve corporate profitability and anti-risk capabilities through reforms.
A few days ago, the National Development and Reform Commission, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, the Ministry of Finance, and the People’s Bank of China jointly issued the "Notice on Doing a Good Job in Cost Reduction in 2021" (hereinafter referred to as the "Notice"), clarifying a list of 19 tasks in 8 areas and distributing them The tax reduction package will reduce the cost of financing, labor, energy, land and other factors, as well as institutional transaction costs.
Detailed implementation of various policies is the key. At present, many departments are further formulating and promulgating detailed rules to promote the further implementation of burden reduction dividends. On May 19, the Shanghai Taxation Bureau of the State Administration of Taxation issued a notice on the precise implementation of tax and fee reduction policies in 2021, and made arrangements for the precise implementation of various tax and fee preferential policies and measures.
Recently, the State Administration of Taxation and the All-China Federation of Industry and Commerce jointly issued the "Special Action Plan to Help Small and Micro Enterprises to Develop "Spring Rain and Run Miao" in 2021" to jointly launch a special action to help small and micro enterprises develop "Spring Rain and Run Miao" in 2021.
Since April this year, my country’s new tax and fee reduction measures for small and micro enterprises and manufacturing enterprises have been implemented successively, including the portion of the annual tax income of small and micro enterprises that does not exceed 1 million yuan. On the basis of the current preferential policies, further reductions will be made. Half of the corporate income tax is levied, and the additional deduction ratio for manufacturing enterprises is increased to 100%. The reporter learned that as these policies take root at the grassroots level, many companies enjoy tax cut dividends.
Small and micro enterprises and individual industrial and commercial households are the capillaries of the social economy and are related to the people's livelihood and employment. “As a small construction company, the outbreak of the epidemic has made it difficult for our company’s capital turnover. Fortunately, last year’s corporate income tax deferral policy solved the urgent need. But at the beginning of this year, we had to pay last year’s deferred taxes and To prepare for the first quarter of this year's declaration. While worrying, I received the good news from the tax bureau's policy counseling team that the small and micro enterprise discounts were reduced by half. It was calculated that the new preferential policies have reduced us nearly 200,000 yuan. Corporate income tax, now only needs to pay more than 20,000 yuan.” said Liu Boqiang, the person in charge of the company's finance.
Linxiang Taicheng Logistics Co., Ltd., located in Hunan, is a logistics enterprise engaged in road transportation and information stowage of general goods, with an annual sales income of about 10 million yuan. Zhang Chuanxiong, the person in charge of the company's finance, calculated a detailed account. Only in the first quarter, the company can enjo
Food security is an important foundation for national security. To cope with major changes unseen in a century, we must first stabilize the basic food market. The Economic Daily News China Economic Trends Research Institute conducted a field follow-up survey of 1942 new agricultural business entities and found that such new entities representing the development direction of agricultural modernization often have more choices when facing the market. In recent years, due to considerations such as obtaining higher economic benefits, the area of newly grown grains has declined. Will this phenomenon affect my country's food security? How to mobilize the enthusiasm of various main bodies in food production? With these questions in mind, we organized expert seminars to jointly answer the question of "who will farm and how to farm" under the new situation.
Guests of this issue
Li Chenggui, Dean of Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences
Zheng Fengtian, Associate Dean, School of Agriculture and Rural Development, Renmin University of China
Professor Kong Xiangzhi, School of Agriculture and Rural Development, Renmin University of China
Chen Jie, Deputy Director, Rural Economic Research Center, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs
Cheng Yu, Deputy Director of the Rural Economic Research Department, Development Research Center of the State Council
Professor Han Yijun, School of Economics and Management, China Agricultural University
Sun Shifang, Member of the Editorial Board of Economic Daily and Dean of China Institute of Economic Trends
Food supply and demand will be in tight balance for a long time
Moderator: my country’s food security has always been paid attention to. This year’s Central No. 1 Document also specifically emphasized the need to ensure food security. Judging from the investigation and research of the experts, what is the current situation of my country's food security?
Kong Xiangzhi: my country's food supply and demand are in a tight balance. First of all, the issue of food security is closely related to my country's arable land resource endowment. my country has 1.546 billion mu of permanent basic farmland, and the total arable land area is 2.223 billion mu. The limitation of land resources is an important reason why the country attaches importance to food production. Secondly, the current situation of food production in various regions is not balanced. In 2019, there were 11 provinces where grain production exceeded demand, and 5 of the 13 provinces located in the main grain producing areas not only failed to transfer grain, but also imported from other provinces. Looking at the situation from 2010 to 2019, the overall grain production has increased, but by province, there are 9 provinces with a decline in grain production. Among the provinces located in the production-sale balance zone, there were 3 provinces with a decline in grain production, while the provinces located in the main sales zone had a decline in grain production. Finally, the international production and marketing environment has also exacerbated consumers' concerns about food security.
Li Chenggui: Although the supply and demand of food are currently in a tight balance, from an overall point of view, we should be optimistic about food security. First, the increase in food consumption is not as good as the increase in production. From the perspective of population data, although the total population of our country is very large, the population growth rate has changed. At the same time, because the income elasticity and price elasticity of agricultural products consumption are very low, even if the consumer's income increases substantially, the demand for food will not increase significantly, that is, the total amount of food consumption will be restricted. Second, technology has played an important role in promoting production. From the perspective of agricultural development history, the average grain yield per mu has only increased by about 30% from the Spring and Autumn Period to the Qing Dynasty over 2000 years, but the emergence of modern hybridization technology has greatly increased the per mu yield of grain crops.
Chen Jie: In the first quarter of this year, my country’s grain imports increased by more than 60% year-on-year, of which corn imports increased by more than 4 times, and wheat imports increased by more than 1 time, indicating that food supplies are in a tight state. This is consistent with the judgment we have always held: namely my country's food supply and demand will be in a tight balance for a long time.
First of all, from the perspective of demand, my country has entered a post-industrial period, and the national food consumption structure and nutritional structure are undergoing transformation and upgrading. In the food consumption structure, the per capita consumption of meat, eggs, milk, aquatic products, and fruits and vegeta
Yuan Longping left, but left the "seeds" of innovation and struggle to later generations. For the Chinese seed industry, it is necessary to draw wisdom from him, and continue to promote seed industry innovation in an "indomitable" attitude. It is necessary to promote the circulation of breeding resources and talents between scientific research institutes and enterprises, so that enterprises can become the main body of seed industry innovation.
Yuan Longping, the "father of hybrid rice", passed away in Hunan a few days ago, and people including seed industry workers have cherished the memory. Yuan Lao said, "People are like seeds, to be a good seed." Now that he is gone, he has left the "seeds" of innovation and struggle to later generations. For the Chinese seed industry, it is necessary to draw wisdom from him, continue to promote seed industry innovation, increase seed industry technology promotion, and ultimately win the battle of the seed industry.
Yuan Longping gives confidence in rice breeding in our country, but we cannot be proud, we must correctly understand the current situation of our country's seed industry. Although rice and wheat breeding are our strengths, we must see that the competitiveness of corn and soybeans is not strong enough. Although foreign-funded enterprises account for only 3% of my country's seed market share, and imported seeds account for only 0.1% of the national seed consumption, it should be noted that the provenance of individual vegetables, white feather broilers, etc., are dependent on foreign countries to varying degrees. Although the area of self-selected varieties of crops accounted for more than 95%, and the supply rate of core livestock and poultry species was more than 75%, it should be noted that the commercial breeding system has not been fully established. Seed industry innovation and agricultural production are still to some extent. Two skins". In a word, compared with developed countries, my country's seed industry is still on the rise.
Actually, the development time of modern seed industry is very short. With the implementation of the Seed Law in 2000 and the start of the "Seed Project" as a sign, China's modern seed industry was truly born, and it took 20 years to traverse a history of hundreds of years in Western countries. The achievements have attracted worldwide attention, but the situation is also very urgent. At present, the external environment in the industry has undergone profound changes. Looking at the country, the comprehensive promotion of rural revitalization puts forward higher requirements for the seed industry, which requires both high yield and high efficiency, as well as green and high quality. A major breakthrough is urgently needed. Looking at the world, the merger and reorganization of the seed industry has been completed, forming three giants. The world seed industry is ushering in a new round of technological revolution marked by gene editing technology. With the increasing uncertainty of the external factors of the seed industry, the drawbacks of the seed industry's "stuck neck" are gradually appearing.
The "stuck neck" disadvantage of the seed industry does not mean that the basic research on breeding in my country is insufficient, but rather refers to the poor organization of breeding. The number of breeders and the number of papers in my country ranks first in the world, and its scientific research strength is world-class, but its ability to produce large varieties is not world-class. For a long time, scientific research units have been engaged in scientific research, mainly focusing on distributing papers, evaluating professional titles, and doing topics, and lacked the energy and ability for industrialization. However, seed companies are generally small, scattered, and weak, and most of them are only responsible for sales and promotion, without the strength and ability of scientific research. Compared with foreign countries, the original innovation ability of related enterprises in my country is insufficient, and most of the innovative talents are still in scientific research institutes.
It can be seen that the turnaround of the seed industry is not only a turnaround in variety applications, but also a turnaround in technological innovation. The selection and breeding of new varieties depends on the combination of many breeding materials thousands of times, and it takes many years to succeed. Many people have not been able to develop a variety in their entire lives. Breeding is a small probability event. Only when the technology is optimized and the base number is large, the chance of successful breeding will be great. Nowadays, the world's strong seed industry has entered the breeding 4.0 era of "conventional breeding + biotechnology + information technology + artificial intelligence". Most of our country is empirical breeding and is in the 2.0 era of hybrid breeding. Taking gene editing technology patents